This post is about the git commands that I find hard to remember.

git add

Add Tracked Files Only

$ git add -u

Move Last Commits To A New Branch

$ git branch <branch_name>      # Create a new branch, saving the desired commits

$ git reset --hard HEAD~3       # Move master back by 3 commits (GONE from master)

$ git checkout <branch_name>    # Go to the new branch that still has the desired commits

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git checkout

Checkout A Remote Branch

$ git fetch
$ git checkout <branch_name>

Discard Unstaged Changes

Discard changes with new files:

$ git clean -df

<figure class="highlight"><pre><code class="language-sh" data-lang="sh">Discard changes with modified files:</code></pre></figure>

$ git checkout -- .

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git clone

$ git clone --single-branch --branch <branchname>

git commit

Change Author After Commit

$ git commit --amend --author="Wenli Zhang <>"

Reference GitHub Commit

$ git commit -m 'User/Project@<commit_hash>'

git config

Prevent GitHub git bash from Asking for Password

Change remote to be SSH instead of HTTPS.

$ git config remote.origin.url<the_repository_username>/<your_project>.git

Colorful UI

$ git config --global color.ui auto


git config --global checkout

So that I can use git ck instead of git checkout later.

Setup email and name

git config --global <your_email>
git config --global <your_name>

git diff

View Changes After Commit

Before committing, changes can be viewed by git diff. But if you forget to check it before committing, this is what you can do.

$ git log  # to get the last two commit hashes

$ git diff <old-commit-hash> <new-commit-hash>

View Changes of A Commit

To view the change of a specific commit, use

$ git diff --stat <commit-hash> <commit-hash>

View Changed Line Counts

$ git diff <commit-hash>^!

git diff-tree

View Files Changed in A Commit

To list the files changed in a commit, use

$ git diff-tree --no-commit-id --name-only -r <commit-hash>

git log

View Remote Commit Log

$ git log <remote_name>/<branch_name>

E.g., git log origin/master.

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Search in Commit Log

$ git log --all --grep='aria'

git merge

Undo unpushed merge

$ git merge --abort

Merge without New Commit

git merge <branch_name> --no-commit --no-ff

git push

Delete A Remote Branch

$ git push origin --delete <branch_name>

Push To A New Remote Branch

$ git push origin <local_branch_name>:<remote_branch_name>

Delete A Remote Tag

$ git push origin :refs/tags/<tag_name>

git remote

Add Remote

$ git remote add origin

Show Remote URL

$ git remote show origin

Change Remote URL

$ git remote set-url origin

git reset

Undo Unpublished Commits

$ git reset --hard <hash_code_of_commit>

Undo Published Commits

$ git reset --hard <hash_code_of_commit>
git push --force

Undo A Commit

After commit, to undo the commit, use:

$ git reset --soft HEAD~

Undo Uncommitted Changes

For tracked files and directories:

$ git reset --hard

For untracked files and directories:

$ git clean -fd

Revert to Last Remote Commit

$ git reset --hard origin/master

git revert

Revert Pushed Commit

$ git revert <hash_code_of_commit>

git show

View Files of Last Commit

$ git show REVISION:<path/to/file>

Or, redirect it to a file.

$ git show REVISION:<path/to/file> > <file_name>

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git update

Ignore tracked local file

$ git update-index --assume-unchanged <file>

Corresponding undo operation is as follows.

$ git update-index --no-assume-unchanged <file>